Oracle License Audit Guide

What is an Oracle License Audit?

  • Compliance Check: Verifies customer adherence to Oracle software license agreements.
  • Frequency: Typically conducted every 3 to 4 years, but can vary.
  • Revenue Source: A significant part of Oracle’s license revenue.
  • Audit Triggers: Includes hardware refresh, mergers, outdated metrics, and changes in software spend.

Oracle License Audit

Oracle License Audit


Brief Overview of Oracle License Audits

An Oracle license audit is a process designed to verify whether customers comply with their Oracle software license agreements. These audits are a critical component of Oracle’s strategy to ensure that software use aligns with the contractual terms agreed upon by their customers.

Importance of Understanding and Preparing for an Oracle License Audit

Understanding and preparing for an Oracle license audit is crucial for any organization using Oracle products. Proper preparation can help avoid financial penalties, ensure compliance, and streamline the audit process. It also allows organizations to identify and rectify potential licensing issues before the audit begins.

The Oracle Audit Process Simplified

Oracle Audit Notification

Notification Letter to CFO, CIO, or Both

  • The audit process begins with Oracle LMS (License Management Services) sending a notification letter to the Chief Financial Officer (CFO), Chief Information Officer (CIO), or both. This letter informs the organization of Oracle’s intention to audit its software licenses.

Indication of Audit by Oracle Directly or Through a Reseller/Partner

  • The notification letter will specify whether the audit will be conducted directly by Oracle or by an Oracle reseller/partner on their behalf.

Audit Kick-off Meeting

Timeline Agreement for Data Sharing

  • During the kick-off meeting, Oracle aims to establish a timeline for the organization to share all necessary data. This step is critical as the audit’s success heavily depends on timely and accurate data provision.

Importance of Cooperation and Data Provision

  • Cooperation with Oracle and timely data sharing are essential. Oracle audits rely on the organization running their Oracle LMS scripts or license compliance tools to gather accurate data on software usage.

Data Sharing & Oracle LMS Scripts

Access to Web-Based License Audit Portal

  • Oracle provides access to a web-based license audit portal. The organization is required to answer a questionnaire about its Oracle usage. This portal also downloads and uploads the Oracle LMS scripts and their outputs.

Questionnaire and LMS Script Execution

  • The organization must complete the questionnaire and run the LMS scripts provided by Oracle. These scripts gather detailed information about the deployed Oracle software, which is then uploaded to the audit portal.

Caution Against Sharing Unanalyzed Data

  • It is crucial not to share any data with Oracle that has not been independently analyzed. This ensures that the organization can verify the accuracy of the data and address any discrepancies before submission.

Oracle Audit Report

Preliminary Report Received 4-6 Weeks After Data Submission

  • Approximately 4-6 weeks after the data submission, Oracle provides a preliminary audit report. This report outlines Oracle’s findings based on the data provided by the organization.

Importance of Reviewing and Confirming Findings with an Expert

  • Organizations should not immediately accept the findings in the preliminary report. They must have an Oracle licensing expert review them to ensure accuracy and identify any potential errors or discrepancies. This expert review can help negotiate better terms and avoid unnecessary penalties.

What Can Trigger an Oracle Audit?

What Can Trigger an Oracle Audit

Hardware Environment Refresh

  • Description: Upgrading or changing hardware environments can attract Oracle’s attention.
  • Reason: Significant changes in hardware setups can lead to discrepancies in software deployments and licensing.

Old or Outdated License Metrics

  • Description: Using outdated license metrics can trigger an audit.
  • Reason: License metrics change over time, and using old metrics may lead to non-compliance with current licensing agreements.

Mergers and Acquisitions

  • Description: Corporate restructuring, such as mergers or acquisitions, often triggers audits.
  • Reason: Changes in organizational structure can impact software usage and compliance, necessitating a review.

Failure to Renew ULAs

  • Description: Not renewing Unlimited Licensing Agreements (ULAs) can prompt an audit.
  • Reason: Expiring ULAs need to be certified or renewed, which raises compliance concerns.

Recent Changes in Software Spend

  • Description: Significant fluctuations in software spending can trigger audits.
  • Reason: Sudden increases or decreases in software purchases can indicate changes in software usage that need verification.

Declining to Purchase Oracle Software Licenses and Cloud Services

  • Description: Refusing to buy additional Oracle licenses or cloud services can lead to an audit.
  • Reason: Oracle may suspect declining purchases due to the over-deployment of existing licenses.

Understanding Oracle LMS / Oracle GLAS

Overview of Oracle LMS and GLAS

Oracle LMS (License Management Services)

  • Role: Oracle LMS is the official audit organization responsible for ensuring customers comply with their software licensing agreements.
  • Function: LMS conducts license audits, verifies compliance, and helps customers understand their licensing positions.

Oracle GLAS (Global License Advisory Services)

  • Role: In 2020, Oracle LMS was rebranded as Oracle GLAS.
  • Function: GLAS continues the role of LMS, focusing on providing advisory services to help customers manage their Oracle licenses more effectively.

Structure and Responsibilities of the Audit Organization


  • Primary Workforce Location: The main team is based in Bucharest, Romania.
  • Team Composition: The organization consists of various groups specializing in different aspects of licensing and compliance.


  • Database Outputs: Analyzing database software deployments and usage.
  • Middleware Outputs: Reviewing middleware product deployments and compliance.
  • Application Outputs: Ensuring compliance for Oracle applications.
  • Java Deployments: Assessing Java deployments and licensing.
  • SaaS Usage Reports: Evaluating software-as-a-service usage and ensuring compliance.

Oracle LMS/GLAS operates independently from Oracle’s sales team, providing an unbiased audit process to maintain compliance and help customers manage their Oracle licenses effectively.

Roles in Oracle License Audits

Roles in Oracle License Audits

Auditor’s Role

Local Oracle LMS Members as Project Managers

  • Project Management: Local Oracle LMS members act as project managers for the audit process. They are responsible for planning and overseeing the audit from start to finish.
  • Meeting Hosts: They host all necessary meetings, ensuring clear and productive communication between Oracle and the customer.
  • Audit Reports: They create detailed audit reports documenting the audit’s findings, including any discrepancies or compliance issues.

Collaboration with Local Sales Teams

  • Joint Effort: Although Oracle LMS operates independently, there is often collaboration with local sales teams. This collaboration ensures that the audit aligns with broader business objectives.
  • Customer Selection: Local sales teams may help select customers for audits based on their knowledge of the customer’s environment and licensing history.

Oracle LMS Audit Negotiations

LMS’s Role vs. Oracle Sales Teams

  • LMS Role: Oracle LMS focuses on the technical and compliance aspects of the audit, ensuring that customers adhere to licensing agreements.
  • Sales Teams Role: Oracle sales teams handle the commercial aspects, including negotiating license purchases and renewals.
  • Dynamic: The interaction between LMS and sales teams often involves a “good cop, bad cop” approach. LMS highlights compliance issues while sales teams negotiate terms to resolve these issues favorably for Oracle.

Understanding Oracle JPE

Role of Oracle Resellers in Audits

  • Joint Partner Engagement (JPE): Oracle JPE involves Oracle resellers conducting license audits on behalf of Oracle.
  • Incentives: These resellers are incentivized through potential license sales, which can sometimes lead to biased audit results. Customers should be aware of this dynamic.

Oracle SIA

Transition to Oracle Cloud and Licensing Education

  • Software Investment Advisory (SIA): Oracle SIA focuses on helping customers transition to Oracle Cloud and educating them on licensing best practices.
  • Licensing Education: SIA provides valuable insights and training to ensure customers understand their licensing obligations and can manage them effectively.

Potential Non-Compliance Discoveries

  • Advisory Role: While primarily advisory, SIA may still identify non-compliance issues during their engagements.
  • Audit Threats: Customers should know that SIA findings can sometimes lead to official audits if significant non-compliance is discovered.

What is Oracle LMSCollection Tool?

What is Oracle LMSCollection Tool

Purpose and Use of Oracle LMSCollection Tool

  • Measurement Tool: The Oracle LMSCollection Tool is a set of scripts developed by Oracle to measure the usage of its software products within customer environments.
  • License Compliance: These scripts help assess whether customers comply with their Oracle license agreements by collecting detailed data on software deployments and usage.

Challenges in Interpreting Outputs Toward License Requirements

  • Complex Outputs: The data generated by the LMSCollection Tool can be complex and difficult to interpret without specialized knowledge.
  • Accurate Analysis: Properly analyzing these outputs requires a deep understanding of Oracle’s licensing policies and how they apply to the specific configurations and deployments in a customer’s IT environment.
  • Risk of Misinterpretation: Incorrect interpretation of the data can lead to significant compliance issues and potential financial penalties.

By understanding the roles of various parties involved in Oracle license audits and the tools they use, organizations can better navigate the audit process and ensure compliance with Oracle’s licensing requirements.

How to Manage the Oracle Audit

Before the Audit Begins

Delay Audit Acknowledgment

  • Initial Response Time: Organizations typically have 45 days to acknowledge the receipt of an audit letter from Oracle. Use this time to prepare thoroughly.
  • Strategic Delay: Delaying acknowledgment can buy time to organize your internal audit processes and consult with experts.

Engage an Oracle Licensing Expert Early

  • Expert Consultation: When you receive the audit notification, engage an Oracle licensing expert. These experts can provide valuable insights and help navigate the complexities of the audit process.
  • Preparation: An expert can help pre-audit your licensing position using the same tools and methodologies that Oracle will use, ensuring you’re better prepared.

Internal Steps

Reviewing Contracts, Understanding Licensing Positions

  • Contract Analysis: Thoroughly review all Oracle contracts to understand the specific terms and conditions, including any audit clauses.
  • Licensing Inventory: Create an inventory of all Oracle software deployments and ensure they match the contractual entitlements.

Remediating Potential Compliance Issues

  • Gap Identification: Identify any potential gaps or discrepancies in licensing compliance.
  • Corrective Actions: Take steps to rectify compliance issues before the audit begins, such as adjusting deployments or purchasing additional licenses if necessary.

External Help

Benefits of Working with an External Licensing Expert

  • Specialized Knowledge: External experts have deep knowledge of Oracle’s licensing rules and can provide accurate interpretations of complex licensing terms.
  • Negotiation Support: They can also assist in negotiating with Oracle, potentially reducing the audit’s financial impact.
  • Risk Mitigation: External experts can help identify and mitigate risks, ensuring the organization is better prepared for the audit.

Three Oracle License Compliance Risks

Oracle Database Compliance Risks

Correct Product Edition Installation, Feature Licensing

  • Edition Mismatch: Ensure that the installed edition of Oracle Database matches the purchased licenses.
  • Feature Licensing: Be cautious of additional features that may require extra licenses. Unintentional use of such features can lead to non-compliance.

License Metric Mistakes

Processor and Named User Plus Licenses, Hardware Review

  • Processor Licenses: Understand Oracle’s rules for processor-based licensing, including how to count cores and processors.
  • Named User Plus Licenses: Review the number of users to ensure compliance with Named User Plus licensing metrics.
  • Hardware Changes: Regularly review hardware configurations to ensure they align with licensing agreements, as changes can affect licensing requirements.

Virtualization and Cloud Policy Risks

Deployment on Virtual Technologies, Specific Rules for Public Clouds

  • Virtualization Risks: Deploying Oracle software on virtualized environments like VMware can lead to non-compliance if not properly managed. Oracle’s rules for virtualization, such as soft partitioning, are strict and complex.
  • Cloud Deployment: Specific rules apply when deploying Oracle licenses in public clouds like AWS or Azure. Ensure compliance with these rules to avoid penalties.
  • Hybrid Environments: Managing licenses in hybrid cloud environments (a mix of on-premises and cloud deployments) requires careful planning and understanding of Oracle’s policies.

By following these steps and being aware of common compliance risks, organizations can better manage the Oracle audit process, ensuring compliance and minimizing potential financial impacts.

FAQ on Oracle License Audits

What is an Oracle license audit?

An Oracle license audit checks if customers comply with Oracle software license agreements. It’s usually conducted every 3 to 4 years but can vary.

Why does Oracle conduct license audits?

Oracle conducts license audits to ensure compliance with software licensing terms and to identify any discrepancies or shortfalls in licensing.

How should we prepare for an Oracle license audit?

Start by reviewing your Oracle contracts and licensing positions. Engage an Oracle licensing expert early to help identify and remediate potential compliance issues.

What triggers an Oracle license audit?

Triggers can include hardware environment refreshes, outdated license metrics, mergers and acquisitions, failure to renew ULAs, changes in software spend, and declining to purchase Oracle licenses.

What should we do if we receive an audit notification?

Acknowledge the notification within the required timeframe, usually 45 days. Use this period to prepare by consulting with an Oracle licensing expert.

How does Oracle notify customers of an audit?

Oracle sends a notification letter to the CFO, CIO, or both, indicating their intention to audit the organization’s software licenses.

What happens during the audit kick-off meeting?

Oracle will agree on a timeline for data sharing. Cooperation and timely provision of accurate data are crucial for a smooth audit process.

What is the Oracle collection tool?

The Oracle LMSCollection Tool is a set of scripts developed by Oracle to measure the usage of its software products. It helps in assessing compliance with license agreements.

Why is it important not to share unanalyzed data with Oracle?

Sharing unanalyzed data can lead to incorrect findings and potential compliance issues. Always verify the data independently before submitting it to Oracle.

Can we delay the audit?

Yes, you can negotiate a delay to prepare adequately. It is advisable to engage an Oracle licensing expert to help with this process.

What are the common compliance risks in Oracle audits?

Common risks include database compliance issues, license metric mistakes, and challenges with virtualization and cloud policies.

How can we mitigate Oracle database compliance risks?

Ensure that the installed edition of Oracle Database matches the purchased licenses and that any additional features used are properly licensed.

What should we watch for with license metric mistakes?

Understand the processor and Named User Plus license rules and regularly review hardware configurations to ensure they align with licensing agreements.

What are the challenges with virtualization in Oracle licensing?

Deploying Oracle software on virtualized environments can lead to non-compliance if not managed correctly. Be aware of Oracle’s specific rules for virtualization and cloud deployments.

How can external licensing experts help during an Oracle audit?

They bring specialized knowledge, assist in accurate data interpretation, provide negotiation support, and help mitigate compliance risks, ensuring better audit outcomes.


  • Fredrik Filipsson

    Fredrik Filipsson is an Oracle licensing expert with over 20 years of experience in Oracle license management. He spent 10 years working for Oracle corporation and then 10 years at a consultant leading engagements on Oracle license assessments, audits, ULAs. He is a public speaker and author

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